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ME Resources for Blind & Visually Impaired: Steps

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Note: Students complete the steps using Braille or large-print versions of the story text that the teacher prints using the files on the Read Naturally ME Resources for Blind and Visually Impaired CD. Typically, students use a Braille writer or BrailleNote for steps that require writing. Asking the students to provide verbal responses is also an option.

  1. Select a Story
    The student selects the story he or she wants to read. Choosing the story deepens the student’s investment in the material.
  2. Key Words
    In the Sequenced series, the student reads the key words and the definitions while listening to an audio recording. The key words provide definitions that are important to understanding the story.
    In the Phonics series, the student listens to a phonics lesson and reads words that have the featured phonics patterns.
  3. Prediction
    The student uses the title and key words to write a prediction of what he or she thinks the story is about. The prediction prepares the student’s mind for reading the story.
  4. Cold Timing
    The teacher times the student, usually for one minute, as the student reads the story. At the end of the timing, the teacher calculates the student’s score by subtracting the number of unknown words from the words read. This step establishes a baseline for progress monitoring, the component of the Read Naturally Strategy that motivates the student to improve. 
  5. Graph Cold-Timing Score
    The teacher graphs the cold-timing score. Marking the graph provides a record of the baseline data.
  6. Read Along
    The student reads along quietly with a recording of the story, typically three times. This step is the teacher-modeling component of the Read Naturally Strategy, which helps the student learn new words and master others as well as learn proper pronunciation, expression, and phrasing.
  7. Practice
    The student practices reading the story without audio support three to ten times until able to read it accurately, with expression, and at the goal rate. This step is the repeated-reading component of the Read Naturally Strategy, which helps the student improve fluency, master difficult words, and understand the story.
  8. Questions
    The student answers questions about the story. Responding to the text holds the student accountable for meaning, develops the ability to answer many types of questions, and provides teachers with information about how well the student comprehends the story.
  9. Pass
    The student reads the story for the teacher to show that he or she can read it at the goal rate, with appropriate expression, and with three or fewer errors. The teacher corrects or reviews the comprehension questions with the student.
  10. Graph Pass Scores
    The teacher graphs the pass-timing score above the cold-timing score to show how much the student’s fluency has improved. The teacher also graphs the student’s comprehension scores. Teachers often use tactile material on the student’s graph so the student can feel the difference between the cold- and pass-timing scores.
  11. Retell/Word Lists
    In the Sequenced series, the student retells or summarizes the story to improve comprehension, and the teacher corrects it and graphs the score. 
    In the Phonics series, the student works on decoding skills by practicing the word list until able to read it accurately at a predetermined rate. The teacher passes the student on the word list and graphs the score.
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