It is very important to consistently track the number of errors a student makes while reading. The following is an explanation of what commonly are and are not considered errors.
|Mispronunciations and dropped endings: |
If a student mispronounces a word or does not pronounce an ending, count it as an error.
|The sentence reads: John caught a bass. |
The student reads: John caught a base.
|Transpositions (out of sequence): |
If a student transposes two or more words, count each word read out of order as an error.
|The sentence reads: Tim walked quietly away. |
The student reads: Tim quietly walked away.
|Hesitations (words supplied by examiner): |
If a student hesitates for three seconds, tell the word to the student and count the word as an error.
|The sentence reads: Tom walked his dog. |
The student reads: Tom...[3-second pause]
Examiner says: walked
Student reads: his dog
If a student skips a word, several words, or an entire line, count each skipped word as an error.
|The sentence reads: He is in the big chair. |
The student reads: He is in the chair.
If a student substitutes one word for another, even if the substitution is a synonym, count it as an error.
|The sentence reads: I went to my house. |
The student reads: I went to my home.
|Repeated errors: |
If a student makes the same error more than once, count each instance as an error.
|The passage reads: The cat likes milk. She drinks it every day. The cat likes me. |
The student reads: The cat licks milk. She drinks it every day. The cat licks me.
|Mispronunciations and dropped ending due to speech problems or dialect: |
Mispronunciations due to speech problems or dialect are typically not counted as errors.
|The sentence reads: Pam made it for him. |
The student reads: Pam made it fo him.
If a student self-corrects an error, count the word(s) as correct.
|The sentence reads: I ran to the park. |
The student reads: I ran to the pan...park.
If a student repeats words or phrases while reading, the repetitions are not counted as errors.
|The sentence reads: I am happy. |
The student reads: I am... I am happy.
If a student adds words, do not count the words as errors. Counting insertions as errors would result in subtracting them from the number of words read correctly, giving the student a lower number of wcpm than he or she actually read correctly.
|The sentence reads: Sheila cried hard. |
The student reads: Sheila cried very hard.
Fluency is rate, accuracy, and expression leading to comprehension. Read Naturally requires all four of these criteria to be mastered in the pass step, but you might find that some students focus mostly on rate.
A student who is overly focused on rate may read without expression, make many errors while reading orally, or read without attending to meaning. Read Naturally recommends one or more of the following actions.
If a student is making many errors in the interest of increasing rate, then...
If the student reads without expression in the interest of increasing rate, then...
If the student reads without grasping the meaning of the text, and you think the lack of understanding is due to an overly high interest in rate, then...
On rare occasions, you may need to lower a student’s goal to increase accuracy and expression. However, the high interest in rate can usually be tempered with the less drastic adaptations listed above.
If students are doing all ten steps of the Read Naturally Strategy, they should be able to pass a story in 45 minutes. If the students drop the prediction and retell steps, they should be able to pass a story in 30 minutes.
It is okay if it takes a student a little more time to pass a story. In general, the more a student uses the strategy, the more efficient he or she becomes. If you begin to feel that the student is taking a long time to pass a story because the material or goal is too difficult for that student, you may want adjust the level or goal.
The expression rating is a value from 1 to 4, where 1 is the lowest rating and 4 is the highest rating. Use the following guidelines to determine what expression rating to give a student. Students must receive an expression rating of 2 or higher in order to pass a story.
|1||The student reads haltingly, seldom uses phrasing, and reads without expression.|
|2||The student reads phrases of three to four words (especially when reading words the student knows well), and usually pauses for end punctuation.|
|3||The student usually uses correct phrasing. Appropriate use of inflection and attention to punctuation occurs in some of the story.|
|4||The student reads conversationally, consistently using correct phrasing and inflection and attending to all punctuation.|
No, students who do two-minute or whole-story timings still need to make three or fewer errors in order to pass a Read Naturally story. The two-minute and whole-story timings are used by students whose reading has shown improvement. So the higher standard of only three errors on longer passages is reasonable and desirable.
If the student reaches the goal rate, has three or less errors, and uses correct phrasing, but does not answer the questions correctly, the teacher should direct the student to reread the story without timing and underline the answers in the story. If the questions missed are inferential questions, he or she can underline the words in the story that provide clues for the answer.
No. Students really need to make three or fewer errors to pass. If students become very inaccurate, you can drop the reading rate goal and/or require that the student read the story accurately to you before attempting the final timing.
No. Students should meet four criteria in order to pass a story:
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